Combat Modifiers
Attacker is … Melee Ranged
Dazzled –1 –1
Entangled –2 –2
Flanking defender +2
Invisible +2 +2
On higher ground +1 +0
Prone –4
Shaken or frightened –2 –2
Squeezing through a space –4 –4
  • An entangled character also takes a –4 penalty to Dexterity, which may affect his attack roll.
  • The defender loses any Dexterity bonus to AC. This bonus doesn’t apply if the target is blinded.
  • Most ranged weapons can’t be used while the attacker is prone, but you can use a crossbow or shuriken while prone at no penalty.
Defender is … Melee Ranged
Behind cover +4 +4
Blinded –2 –2
Concealed or invisible — See Concealment
Cowering –2 –2
Entangled +0 +0
Flat-footed (such as surprised, balancing, climbing) +0 +0
Grappling (but attacker is not) +0 +0
Helpless (such as paralyzed, sleeping, or bound) –4 +0
Kneeling or sitting –2 +2
Pinned –4 +0
Prone –4 +4
Squeezing through a space –4 –4
Stunned –2 –2
  • When blinded, flat-footed, cowering, and grappling, the defender loses any Dexterity bonus to AC.
  • An entangled character takes a –4 penalty to Dexterity.
  • When grappling, roll randomly to see which grappling combatant you strike. That defender loses any Dexterity bonus to his Defense.
  • When helpless or pinned, treat the defender’s Dexterity as 0 (–5 modifier).
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